Chlorine dioxide has been safely used in a variety of industries for decades as a powerful selective oxidant and a US EPA-registered broad-spectrum microbiocide. It is used in hundreds of municipal water treatment facilities in the US for controlling bacteria and sulfur compounds. Chlorine dioxide is a well-documented biocide, which is ideal for oilfield applications because of its ability to penetrate materials that protect bacteria from conventional biocides, including hydrocarbon. And because chlorine dioxide is a selective oxidant, it specifically reacts with materials such as bacteria, heavy metals and sulfides, without creating brominated, chlorinated or corrosive byproducts. However, it should be noted that while Sabre's patented generation system always creates pure chlorine dioxide due to a pre-reaction, other systems' purity and efficacy are limited by fluid quality, pH and rate.